Conservation status of Creole sheep flocks in Brazil

Main Article Content

Gilson Rudinei Pires Moreira
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3132-7164

Abstract

The Creole sheep (Ovis aries) is a breed that has been reared for centuries in southern Brazil, although it was officially recognized by the Brazilian authorities only in 2001. There are no updated local records on its current abundance, which is essential to establish conservation policies for the breed if required. Based on a survey conducted among farmers and considering all genealogical control records for Creole sheep provided by the Brazilian Sheep Breed Association (ARCO), we herein address the status of the breed in terms of the number and size of flocks, updating its geographical distribution. There are approximately 112 Creole flocks, 8,844 reproductive ewes (flock size from 3 to 850 individuals; geometric average 54.77 individuals per flock). The flocks are primarily distributed in the southernmost states of Rio Grande do and Santa Catarina, with sporadic occurrence in northern and central states (Rio de Janeiro, and ). The majority of the flocks (n = 105 flocks, with 8,298 ewes) are privately held, being reared primarily for meat and carpet wool production, similarly to other commercial breeds. A few flocks (5.61%) have remained with the same families, whose ascendants started rearing Creole sheep as an undefined breed over a century ago. However, over 65% of the current breeders have started rearing these sheep in the last two decades, following the official recognition of the breed and the foundation of the Brazilian Creole Sheep Breeder Association, which is in charge of breed promotion. Moreover, 73 flocks with genealogical control by ARCO have been established since the official recognition of the breed (total average = 427.80 specimens recorded per year). Recently, however, this number has decreased, with only 19 Creole breeders registering sheep in the last five years. Notwithstanding, the number of registered males remained stable (average of 78.2 rams/year, during 2016–2020). Taken together, the total number of the existing Creole ewes and males is well above the threshold adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) to qualify a given sheep breed as at risk (< 80% pure-breeding ewes).

Article Details

How to Cite
Moreira, G. R. P. (2022) “Conservation status of Creole sheep flocks in Brazil”, Genetic Resources, 3(5), pp. 68–74. doi: 10.46265/genresj.HFHG6814.
Section
Short Communications
References

Alderson, L (2009). “Breed at risk: Definition and measurement of the factors which determine endangerment”. Livestock Science 123, pp. 23–27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2008.10.001.

Carson, A et al. (2009). “Geographical isolation of native sheep breeds in the UK - Evidence of endemism as a risk factor to genetic resources”. Livestock Science 123, pp. 288–299. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2008.11.026.

Falling Rain Genomics (2007). “Global Gazetteer ver. 2.3, 1996-2017”. URL: http://www.fallingrain.com/world/BR.

FAO (2013). In vivo conservation of animal genetic resources. Vol. 14. FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines. URL: https://www.fao.org/3/i3327e/i3327e00.htm.

FAO (2015). The Second Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Ed. by B D Scherf and D Pilling. FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Assessments. Rome, p. 562. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4060/I4787E.

FAO (2021). Domestic animal diversity information system. URL: http://www.fao.org/dad-is/browse-by-country-and-species/en/.

Fernández, G (2000). “Situación de los recursos genéticos domésticos locales del Uruguay”. Archivos de Zootecnia 49, pp. 330–340.

Gonçalves, G L et al. (2010). “Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses reveal population differentiation in Brazilian Creole sheep”. Animal Genetics 41, pp. 308–310. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2052.2009.01986.x.

Henkes, L E et al. (1993). “Genetic characterization of the Crioula Lanada sheep from Southern Brazil”. Revista Brasileira de Genética 16, pp. 449–455.

Hervé, E (1922). “Pecuária-agricultura: Ensino de agronomia e veterinária ”. In: O Rio Grande do Sul. Ed. by A R Costa. Vol. 1. Porto Alegre: Editorio Globo, pp. 27–40.

Matos, A J (2016). Ganho de peso de cordeiros da raça ovina Crioula em sistema de confinamento com utilização de farelo de arroz integral. Unpublished Bachelor’s Thesis.

Matos, A J (2020). “Cordeiro Crioulo surpreende no concurso de carcaças da Agrovino”. Revista Arco 25, pp. 55–56.

Matos, A J (2021). “Cordeiro cruza Crioula-Suffolk vence na categoria “Cruzamentos Orientados” no concurso de carcaças da Agrovino”. Revista Arco 28, pp. 34–34.

McManus, C et al. (2014). “Geographical distribution of sheep breeds in Brazil and their relationship with climatic and environmental factors as risk classification for conservation”. Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology 1(3). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/2196-288X-1-3.

Mernies, B et al. (2007). “Índices zoométricos en una muestra de ovejas criollas uruguayas”. Archivos de Zootecnia 56, pp. 473–478. URL: https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/495/49509918.pdf.

Moreira, G R P et al. (2021). Raça ovina crioula: Variação morfológica e classificação em vinte anos de Expointer. Porto Alegre: Forma Diagramação, 214pp.

Oliveira, M G (2016). Características quantitativas e qualitativas da carcaça de cordeiros da raça ovina Crioula em confinamento. Unpublished Bachelor’s Thesis.

Peña, S, G A López, et al. (2015). “Avances em la caracterización zootécnica de la raza ovina Criolla Argentina. ” Revista de Divulgación Técnica Agropecuaria 2, pp. 11–20. URL: https://revistafcaunlz.gramaweb.com.ar/2015/03/.

Peña, S, G Lopez, et al. (2013). “Características zoométricas de ovinos criollos de cuatro regiones de la Argentina”. Actas Iberoamericanas de Conservación Animal 3, pp. 174–181. URL: https://aicarevista.jimdo.com/n%C3%83%C2%BAmeros/vol%C3%83%C2%BAmen- 3-2013/.

Silva, A P S P et al. (2013). “Ovinocultura do Rio Grande do Sul: Descrição do sistema produtivo e dos principais aspectos sanitários e reprodutivos”. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 33, pp. 1453–1458. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-736X2013001200010.

Silva, M C et al. (2013). “Morphometric traits in Crioula Lanada ewes in Southern Brazil”. Small Ruminant Research 110, pp. 15–19. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2012.09.002.

Trierweiler, A C (2021). “O coxinilho”. Revista Arco 29, pp. 66–67.

Vaz, C M S L (2000). Morfologia e aptidão da ovelha crioula lanada. Bagé, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/infoteca/handle/doc/227035.

Vaz, C M S L, F P Medeiros, and G R P Moreira (2002). “Padrão racial da ovelha crioula”. Boletim Informativo ABCOC 1, pp. 2–5.

Vaz, C M S L, G R P Moreira, and J E M A Caon (2003). “O registro de uma raça: Da ovelha crioula à homologação da raça ovina crioula”. Boletim Informativo ABCOC 4, pp. 5–8.