Main Article Content
This review describes sheep genetic resources in Bulgaria with coloured wool and evaluates the country’s potential for coloured wool production. In 2018, Bulgaria counted 125,422 animals belonging to 18 native sheep breeds, six of which are in danger of extinction. Native sheep breeds in Bulgaria can be divided into three groups depending on the ﬂeece colour of the animals: i) sheep breeds with fully pigmented ﬂeece in all animals; ii) sheep breeds with animals with fully pigmented ﬂeece or fully white ﬂeece; iii) sheep breeds with spotted coloured ﬂeece. Colouration in populations of the native Bulgarian sheep breeds can be explained by the phenotypic expression of several alleles of coat colour genes: ExtensionD, Agoutia and Pigmented headT , while white colour is due to the presence of the dominant Agoutiwtallele.
Based on the relative share of the animals with coloured wool, the country’s potential for annual coloured wool production from native breeds was estimated at a minimum of 133,791 kg of unwashed wool. Recent tendencies in lifestyle changes of the Bulgarian people are gradually leading to increased interest in naturally coloured wool products, which may beneﬁt the conservation of endangered native breeds by promoting relevant breeding programmes.
Bari´c, C (1952). “Grada I eksterijer kucovlaške ovce”. Poljoprivrednaznanstvena smotra 13. (in Croatian).
Broad, Thomas E et al. (1999). “Revised COGNOSAG guidelines for gene nomenclature in ruminants 1998”. Genetics Selection Evolution 31(3), pp. 263–263. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1297-9686-31-3-263.
Bultman, Scott J., Edward J. Michaud, and Richard P. Woychik (1992). “Molecular characterization of the mouse agouti locus”. Cell 71(7), pp. 1195–1204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(05)80067-4.
Chaupin, M T (2014). “Developing a market for European wool”. In: Timeless coloured sheep. Ed. by Dawie du Toit, pp. 87–89.
Cieslak, Michael et al. (2011). “Colours of domestication”. Biological Reviews 86(4), pp. 885–899. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185x.2011.00177.x.
Dimov, D (2011a). Breeding program of Patch-faced Maritza sheep breed. (in Bulgarian). Intelexpert-94 Publishing house.
Dimov, D (2011b). “Milk yield and body weight of White Maritza sheep”. In: Proceedings of 8th Global conference on the conservation of Animal Genetic Resources, pp. 113–115.
Dimov, D (2015). White Maritza sheep - origin, state and perspectives for development. Plovdiv: Intelexpert-94 Publishing house.
Dimov, D and M Djorbineva (1999). “Study on thickness of wool fibres of White and Patch Faced Maritza sheep”. Scientific Works XLIV(3), pp. 191–194.
Dimov, D., A. Vuchkov, and I. Ivanov (2016). “Study on ewe live weight of Patch-faced Maritza sheep breed”. In: 2nd International Symposium for Agriculture and Food, pp. 67–72. URL: http://www.fznh.ukim.edu.mk.
Djorbineva, M (1984). Variability of selection traits of local Stara Zagora sheep breed and possibilities for their improvement. (in Bulgarian). Stara Zagora.
Djorbineva, M (2008). “The Stara Zagora sheep breed and breeding association’s breeding activities”. Sheep Breeding(2), pp. 7–13.
EASRAB (2013). Livestock breeds in the republic of Bulgaria. Catalogue 4th edition. Sofia.
European Commission (2009). Regulation laying down health rules as regards animal by-products and derived products not intended for human consumption and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1774/2002 (Animal by-products Regulation). URL: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg/2009/1069/.
FAO (2013). In vivo conservation of animal genetic resources. Vol. 14. FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines. Rome: FAO. URL: http://www.fao.org/3/i3327e/i3327e00.htm.
FAO (2017). FAOSTAT. URL: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/ (visited on 05/26/2021).
Fontanesi, F et al. (2010). “Sequence characterization of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene in sheep with different coat colours and identification of the putative e allele at the ovine Extension locus”. Small Ruminant Research 91(2-3), pp. 200–207. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2010.03.015.
Genkovski, D (2002). Comparative characteristics of different breeds and varieties of sheep, reared under the conditions of the Central Balkan Mountains. Sofia, Bulgaria.
Georgiev, D (1990). Genealogical structure, phenotypic and genotypic characterization of selection trait in sheep of Black-head Pleven sheep breed by the example of the flock of village Riben to PJK “G.Dimitrov”. Sofia, Bulgaria.
Hlebarov, G (1933). The Karnobat sheep. Vol. 31. Scientific works. Sofia: Bulgarian Agricultural Society.
Hlebarov, G. (1937). “Sheep breeds and varieties in Bulgaria.” In: Yearbook of Sofia University. Sofia: Faculty of Aronomy and Forestry.
Hlebarov, G (1942). “Karakachan sheep”. In: Yearbook of Sofia University. Sofia: Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry.
Iliev, M. (2007). “Characteristics of Karnobat local sheep”. In: Scientific and practical conference with international participation "AGROECO 2007", pp. 265–269.
Iliev, M (2012). “Characteristics of productivity in sheep from Karnobat local breed”. Animal Sciences 3, pp. 11–16.
Ivanov, P (1942). Black-head Pleven sheep breed. Study on the exterior and productive performances. Pleven.
Jackson, I J (1994). “Molecular and Developmental Genetics of Mouse Coat Color”. Annual Review of Genetics 28(1), pp. 189–217. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ge.28.120194.001201.
Koseniuk, Anna et al. (2018). “Genetic background of coat colour in sheep”. Archives Animal Breeding 61(2), pp. 173–178. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/aab-61-173-2018.
Lauvergne, J J and P Raffier (1975). “Génétique de la couleur de la toison des races ovines françaises solognote, bizet et berrichonne”. Annales de Génétique et de Sélection Animale 7(3). (in French), pp. 263–276. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1297-9686-7-3-263.
Lundie, Roger S. (2011). “The genetics of colour in fat-tailed sheep: a review”. Tropical Animal Health and Production 43(7), pp. 1245–1265. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9850-0.
Mason, I L (1967). Sheep breeds of the Mediterranean. Rome: FAO.
Mili´c, L (1954). Prilog poznavanju osobina crne vlaške (karakaˇcanske) ovce I naˇcin stoˇcarenja s njom. (in Serbian). Skopje: Zavod za stoˇcarstvo NR Makedonije.
Notter, D R and D P Sponenberg (2002). “Genetic control of colour in Dorper sheep and their Crosses”. Sheep & goat research journal 17(2), pp. 48–51.
Savov, T (1964). Development of sheep farming in Bulgaria till 9 September 1944. Sofia: Publishing House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
Searle, A G (1968). Comparative Genetics of Coat Colour in mammals. London, UK: Logos Press.
Sedefchev, S and A Sedefchev (2011). “Comparison of exterior parameters of in situ conserved Karakachan sheep with the breed type from the first half of the twentieth century”. Agrarni Nauki 3(6). (in Bulgarian), pp. 147–153.
Sponenberg, D P (1997). “Genetics of colour and hair texture”. In: The genetics of sheep. Ed. by L Piper and A Ruvinsky. New York: CAB International, pp. 51–86.
Sponenberg, D P et al. (1996). “Coat colour loci (Category 1)”. In: Mendelian Inheritance in Sheep 1996 (Mis 1996). Ed. by J. J. Lauvergne, C. H. S. Dolling, and C. Renieri. France, Italy: COGNOSAG and University of Camerino, pp. 13–57.
Staikova, G (2005). Study on the value of the productive traits in sheep from the Karakachan breed and Copper-Red Shumen strain. Shumen, Bulgaria.
Staikova, G and M Iliev (2017). “Karnobat sheep breed”. Bulgarian Journal of Animal Husbandry 3, pp. 3–15.
Staikova, G, N Stancheva, and I Dimitrova (2015). “Copper-red Shumen sheep breed”. Bulgarian Journal of Animal Husbandry 52(5). (in Bulgarian), pp. 72–80.
Stamatis, C. et al. (2017). “Genetic analysis of melanocortin 1 receptor gene in endangered Greek sheep breeds”. Small Ruminant Research 157, pp. 54–56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2017.09.018.
Stefanova, S and M Iliev (2005). “Comparative evaluation of the slaughter qualities and the main tissue structures in the carcass of lambs from the Karnobat thin-wool and Karnobat local breeds”. In: Sat. Selection and agrotechnics of field crops. Livestock. Balkan Scientific Conference. Ed. by and others, pp. 586–592.
Tzochev, I et al. (2017). Breeding program of Kotlenska sheep breed in Bulgaria.
USDA (2018). Wool Grades and Standards. URL: https://www.ams.usda.gov/grades-standards/wool-grades-and-standards (visited on 05/26/2021).
WMA (2012). Waste Management Act. Sofia, Bulgaria. URL: https://www.me.government.bg/en/library/waste-management-act-342-c25-m258-1.html.
Yang, Guang-Li et al. (2013). “Mutations in MC1R Gene Determine Black Coat Color Phenotype in Chinese Sheep”. The Scientific World Journal 2013, pp. 1–8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/675382.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright of the articles published in Genetic Resources and grant the journal right of first publication with open access. All articles published in Genetic Resource are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) that allows others to download, share and adapt the work for commercial and non-commercial purposes as long as proper attribution to the original article is given. Genetic Resources permits and encourages authors to post items submitted to the journal (including the publisher's final layout) on personal websites or institutional repositories after acceptance and/or publication, while providing bibliographic details that credit their publication in Genetic Resources.